Medical Studies & Articles | Sun Home Saunas

Medical Studies & Articles

Our team has reviewed over 100 medical studies and articles so we can bring you the most accurate information possible. But don't take our word for it, scroll down to find a wealth of information on sauna bathing, its cultural significance and the myriad of newly discovered health and longevity benefits associated with the practise. 
Do not hesitate to contact us with any questions as our sauna specialists are all passionate sauna users themselves and can share first hand experiences or answer any sauna related questions you may have!

 

  1.  Cardiovascular and Other Health Benefits of Sauna Bathing: A Review of the Evidence Mayo Clinic Proceedings 93, no. 8 (August 2018): 1111–21. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.04.008. 
  2.  Association Between Sauna Bathing and Fatal Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Events JAMA Internal Medicine 175, no. 4 (April 2015): 542. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8187. 
  3.  “{OUP} Accepted Manuscript.” Age And Ageing, 2016. doi:10.1093/ageing/afw212.
  4.   Sauna Bathing and Risk of Psychotic Disorders: A Prospective Cohort Study Medical Principles and Practice 27, no. 6 (2018): 562–69. doi:10.1159/000493392. 
  5.  Benefits and risks of sauna bathing The American Journal of Medicine 110, no. 2 (February 2001): 118–26. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00671-9. 
  6.  Health effects and risks of sauna bathing International Journal of Circumpolar Health 65, no. 3 (July 2006): 195–205. doi:10.3402/ijch.v65i3.18102. 
  7.    Far-infrared saunas for treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: summary of published evidence Can Fam Physician 55, no. 7 (July 2009): 691–96. 
  8.  Sauna bather’s circulation Ann. Clin. Res. 20, no. 4 (1988): 249–56. 
  9.   Waon therapy for cardiovascular disease: innovative therapy for the 21st century Circ. J. 74, no. 4 (April 2010): 617–21. 
  10.  Sauna-Induced Body Mass Loss in Young Sedentary Women and Men The Scientific World Journal 2014 (2014): 1–7. doi:10.1155/2014/307421. 
  11.     Hormesis defined Ageing Research Reviews 7, no. 1 (January 2008): 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2007.08.007. 
  12.    Regular thermal therapy may promote insulin sensitivity while boosting expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase Effects comparable to those of exercise training Medical Hypotheses 73, no. 1 (July 2009): 103–5. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.12.020. 
  13.    Oxidative stress and protein aggregation during biological aging Experimental Gerontology 36, no. 9 (September 2001): 1539–50. doi:10.1016/s0531-5565(01)00139-5. 
  14.   Abundance of Intrinsic Disorder in Protein Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Biochemistry 45, no. 35 (September 2006): 10448–60. doi:10.1021/bi060981d. 
  15.   Protein Misfolding and Neurodegeneration Archives of Neurology 65, no. 2 (February 2008). doi:10.1001/archneurol.2007.56. 
  16.   Heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative disorders and aging Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 8, no. 4 (September 2014): 293–310. doi:10.1007/s12079-014-0243-9. 
  17.  Anti-inflammatory heat shock protein 70 genes are positively associated with human survival Curr. Pharm. Des. 16, no. 7 (2010): 796–801. 
  18.  Effect of heat acclimation on heat shock protein 72 and interleukin-10 in humans Journal of Applied Physiology 103, no. 4 (October 2007): 1196–1204. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2007. 
  19.   Heat stress and cardiovascular, hormonal, and heat shock proteins in humans J Athl Train 47, no. 2 (2012): 184–90. 
  20.   Repeated exposure to heat stress induces mitochondrial adaptation in human skeletal muscle Journal of Applied Physiology 125, no. 5 (November 2018): 1447–55. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00383.2018. 
  21.   Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18, no. 12 (December 2017): 2772. doi:10.3390/ijms18122772. 
  22.  Prognostic Factors Influencing the Patency of Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Literature Review and Novel Therapeutic Modality by Far Infrared Therapy Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 72, no. 3 (March 2009): 109–16. doi:10.1016/s1726-4901(09)70035-8. 
  23.   Heme Oxygenase 1 in Regulation of Inflammation and Oxidative Damage Methods in Enzymology In , 163–76. Elsevier, 2002. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(02)53046-9. 
  24.   FOXO Transcriptional Factors and Long-Term Living Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017 (2017): 1–8. doi:10.1155/2017/3494289. 
  25.   The pro-longevity gene FoxO3 is a direct target of the p53 tumor suppressor Oncogene 30, no. 29 (March 2011): 3207–21. doi:10.1038/onc.2011.35. 
  26.   FOXO3: A Major Gene for Human Longevity - A Mini-Review Gerontology 61, no. 6 (2015): 515–25. doi:10.1159/000375235. 
  27.   Foxo in the immune system Oncogene 27, no. 16 (April 2008): 2337–44. doi:10.1038/onc.2008.26. 
  28.   FOXO transcription factors: key regulators of cellular quality control Trends in Biochemical Sciences 39, no. 4 (April 2014): 159–69. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2014.02.003. 
  29.   FOXO3 links autophagy to apoptosis Autophagy 14, no. 8 (July 2018): 1467–68. doi:10.1080/15548627.2018.1475819. 
  30.   Stress-Dependent Regulation of FOXO Transcription Factors by the SIRT1 Deacetylase Science 303, no. 5666 (March 2004): 2011–15. doi:10.1126/science.1094637. 
  31.   Inhibition of IL-6 and IL-10 Signaling and Stat Activation by Inflammatory and Stress Pathways The Journal of Immunology 165, no. 9 (November 2000): 5227–37. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.9.5227. 
  32.   419. Inflammation in Treatment Resistant Depression: Challenges and Opportunities Biological Psychiatry 81, no. 10 (May 2017): S171. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.02.903. 
  33.   Interleukin-6 Directly Increases Glucose Metabolism in Resting Human Skeletal Muscle Diabetes 56, no. 6 (March 2007): 1630–37. doi:10.2337/db06-1733. 
  34.  Haemodynamic and hormonal responses to heat exposure in a Finnish sauna bath European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 58, no. 5 (March 1989): 543–50. doi:10.1007/bf02330710. 
  35.   Cardiac Responses to Thermal, Physical, and Emotional Stress BMJ 3, no. 5818 (July 1972): 71–76. doi:10.1136/bmj.3.5818.71. 
  36.   The blood pressure and heart rate during sauna bath correspond to cardiac responses during submaximal dynamic exercise Complementary Therapies in Medicine 44 (June 2019): 218–22. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2019.05.002. 
  37.   Waon Therapy for Managing Chronic Heart Failure Results From a Multicenter Prospective Randomized WAON-CHF Study Circulation Journal 80, no. 4 (2016): 827–34. doi:10.1253/circj.cj-16-0051. 
  38.   Effects of Repeated Sauna Treatment on Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure Circulation Journal 68, no. 12 (2004): 1146–51. doi:10.1253/circj.68.1146. 
  39.   Repeated sauna therapy improves myocardial perfusion in patients with chronically occluded coronary artery-related ischemia International Journal of Cardiology 167, no. 1 (July 2013): 237–43. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.12.064. 
  40.   Waon Therapy Improves Peripheral Arterial Disease Journal of the American College of Cardiology 50, no. 22 (November 2007): 2169–71. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.08.025. 
  41.   Waon therapy mobilizes CD34thplus cells and improves peripheral arterial disease Journal of Cardiology 56, no. 3 (November 2010): 361–66. doi:10.1016/j.jjcc.2010.08.004. 
  42.   The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 27, no. 4 (January 2014). doi:10.2478/s13382-014-0281-9. 
  43.   2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults Journal of the American College of Cardiology 71, no. 19 (May 2018): e127–e248. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.006. 
  44.   Sauna Bathing and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study American Journal of Hypertension 30, no. 11 (June 2017): 1120–25. doi:10.1093/ajh/hpx102. 
  45.   Sauna exposure leads to improved arterial compliance: Findings from a non-randomised experimental study European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 25, no. 2 (October 2017): 130–38. doi:10.1177/2047487317737629. 
  46.   Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39, no. 5 (March 2002): 754–59. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(01)01824-1. 
  47.   Acute Hemodynamic Improvement by Thermal Vasodilation in Congestive Heart Failure Circulation 91, no. 10 (May 1995): 2582–90. doi:10.1161/01.cir.91.10.2582. 
  48.   Thermal vasodilation as a treatment of congestive heart failure: a novel approach J Cardiol 27, no. 1 (January 1996): 29–30. 
  49.   C-reactive protein and Hypertension Journal of Human Hypertension 28, no. 7 (November 2013): 410–15. doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.111. 
  50.   Sauna bathing and systemic inflammation European Journal of Epidemiology 33, no. 3 (December 2017): 351–53. doi:10.1007/s10654-017-0335-y. 
  51.   Association of High Cardiovascular Fitness and the Rate of Adaptation to Heat Stress BioMed Research International 2018 (2018): 1–6. doi:10.1155/2018/1685368. 
  52.   Head-out immersion in hot water increases serum BDNF in healthy males International Journal of Hyperthermia 34, no. 6 (November 2017): 834–39. doi:10.1080/02656736.2017.1394502. 
  53.   Voluntary exercise and palatable high-fat diet both improve behavioural profile and stress responses in male rats exposed to early life stress: Role of hippocampus Psychoneuroendocrinology 35, no. 10 (November 2010): 1553–64. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.05.012. 
  54.   Neurovascular regulation in the normal brain and in Alzheimer s disease Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5, no. 5 (May 2004): 347–60. doi:10.1038/nrn1387. 
  55.   Repeated Thermal Therapy Diminishes Appetite Loss and Subjective Complaints in Mildly Depressed Patients Psychosomatic Medicine 67, no. 4 (July 2005): 643–47. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000171812.67767.8f. 
  56.   Whole-Body Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder JAMA Psychiatry 73, no. 8 (August 2016): 789. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.1031. 
  57.   The Effects of Acute Exercise on Mood, Cognition, Neurophysiology, and Neurochemical Pathways: A Review Brain Plasticity 2, no. 2 (March 2017): 127–52. doi:10.3233/BPL-160040. 
  58.   Rise in plasma beta-endorphin and ACTH in response to hyperthermia in sauna Horm. Metab. Res. 17, no. 12 (December 1985): 693–94. 
  59.   How the sauna affects the endocrine system Ann. Clin. Res. 20, no. 4 (1988): 262–66. 
  60.   Plasma ACTH, beta-endorphin, prolactin, growth hormone and luteinizing hormone levels after thermal stress, heat and cold Stress Medicine 8, no. 3 (July 1992): 187–91. doi:10.1002/smi.2460080310. 
  61.   Heterologous mu-opioid receptor adaptation by repeated stimulation of kappa-opioid receptor: up-regulation of G-protein activation and antinociception J. Neurochem. 85, no. 5 (June 2003): 1171–79. 
  62.   Chlorotoxin-mediated disinhibition of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons using a conditional transgenic approach Brain Research 1016, no. 1 (July 2004): 20–32. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.03.078. 
  63.   White Matter Plasticity and Enhanced Remyelination in the Maternal CNS Journal of Neuroscience 27, no. 8 (February 2007): 1812–23. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4441-06.2007. 
  64.   Haemodynamic and hormonal responses to heat exposure in a Finnish sauna bath Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 58, no. 5 (1989): 543–50. 
  65.   Response of plasma endorphins, prolactin and catecholamines in women to intense heat in a sauna European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 57, no. 1 (1988): 98–102. doi:10.1007/bf00691246. 
  66.   Catecholamine Response to Exercise in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pediatric Research 53, no. 5 (May 2003): 756–61. doi:10.1203/01.pdr.0000061750.71168.23. 
  67.   Endocrine effects of repeated sauna bathing Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 128, no. 3 (November 1986): 467–70. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1986.tb08000.x. 
  68.   Effect of hyperthermia and physical activity on circulating growth hormone Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 33, no. 5 (October 2008): 880–87. doi:10.1139/h08-073. 
  69.   Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors Journal of the American College of Cardiology 38, no. 4 (October 2001): 1083–88. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(01)01467-x. 
  70.  Whole body hyperthermia improves obesity-induced insulin resistance in diabetic mice International Journal of Hyperthermia 23, no. 3 (January 2007): 259–65. doi:10.1080/02656730601176824. 
  71.  Effect of post-exercise sauna bathing on the endurance performance of competitive male runners Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 10, no. 4 (August 2007): 259–62. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2006.06.009. 
  72.   Human thermoregulatory responses to cold air are altered by repeated cold water immersion Journal of Applied Physiology 60, no. 5 (May 1986): 1542–48. doi:10.1152/jappl.1986.60.5.1542. 
  73.   Sauna exposure immediately prior to short-term heat acclimation accelerates phenotypic adaptation in females Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 21, no. 2 (February 2018): 190–95. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.06.024. 
  74.  Heat acclimation responses of an ultra-endurance running group preparing for hot desert-based competition European Journal of Sport Science 14, no. sup1 (March 2012): S131–S141. doi:10.1080/17461391.2012.660506. 
  75. Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments. National Academies Press, 1993. doi:10.17226/2094.
  76.   Effectiveness of short-term heat acclimation for highly trained athletes European Journal of Applied Physiology 112, no. 5 (September 2011): 1827–37. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2153-3. 
  77.  Muscle metabolism during exercise in the heat in unacclimatized and acclimatized humans Journal of Applied Physiology 59, no. 5 (November 1985): 1350–54. doi:10.1152/jappl.1985.59.5.1350. 
  78.   Substrate utilization in leg muscle of men after heat acclimation Journal of Applied Physiology 63, no. 1 (July 1987): 31–35. doi:10.1152/jappl.1987.63.1.31. 
  79.   Muscular Atrophy Following Immobilisation Sports Medicine 10, no. 1 (July 1990): 42–58. doi:10.2165/00007256-199010010-00005. 
  80.  Intermittent hyperthermia enhances skeletal muscle regrowth and attenuates oxidative damage following reloading Journal of Applied Physiology 102, no. 4 (April 2007): 1702–7. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2006. 
  81.  Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy in hindlimb-unweighted rats Journal of Applied Physiology 88, no. 1 (January 2000): 359–63. doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.1.359. 
  82.   Benefits and risks of sauna bathing Am. J. Med. 110, no. 2 (February 2001): 118–26. 
  83.   Daily heat treatment maintains mitochondrial function and attenuates atrophy in human skeletal muscle subjected to immobilization Journal of Applied Physiology , May 2019. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01098.2018. 
  84.   Heat treatment reduces oxidative stress and protects muscle mass during immobilization American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 289, no. 1 (July 2005): R134–R139. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00497.2004. 
  85.   Heat induces myogenic transcription factors of myoblast cells via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (Trpv1) FEBS Open Bio 9, no. 1 (December 2018): 101–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12550. 
  86.   Heat shock proteins and heat adaptation of the whole organism Journal of Applied Physiology 83, no. 5 (November 1997): 1413–17. doi:10.1152/jappl.1997.83.5.1413. 
  87.   Thermotolerance and heat acclimation may share a common mechanism in humans American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 301, no. 2 (August 2011): R524–R533. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00039.2011. 
  88.  Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study: Monitoring and Elimination of Bioaccumulated Toxic Elements Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 61, no. 2 (November 2010): 344–57. doi:10.1007/s00244-010-9611-5. 
  89.   Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration With Medical Disorders and Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults JAMA 300, no. 11 (September 2008): 1303. doi:10.1001/jama.300.11.1303. 
  90.   Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2012 (2012): 1–10. doi:10.1155/2012/185731. 
  91.   An evaluation of the levels of organochlorine compounds (OCPs and PCBs) in cultured freshwater and wild sea fish eggs as an exposure biomarker for environmental contamination Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26, no. 7 (January 2019): 7005–12. doi:10.1007/s11356-019-04207-0. 
  92.   Intrinsic Human Elimination Half-Lives of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Derived from the Temporal Evolution of Cross-Sectional Biomonitoring Data from the United Kingdom Environmental Health Perspectives 119, no. 2 (February 2011): 225–31. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002211. 
  93.   Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study ISRN Toxicology 2013 (2013): 1–7. doi:10.1155/2013/483832. 
  94.   Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study The Scientific World Journal 2012 (2012): 1–10. doi:10.1100/2012/615068. 
  95.   Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated With Decreased Serum Testosterone in Men, Women, and Children From NHANES 2011 2012 The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 99, no. 11 (November 2014): 4346–52. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2555. 
  96.   Seminal and molecular evidence that sauna exposure affects human spermatogenesis Human Reproduction 28, no. 4 (February 2013): 877–85. doi:10.1093/humrep/det020. 
  97.   ANENCEPHALY AND THE SAUNA The Lancet 311, no. 8074 (May 1978): 1162. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(78)90348-3. 
  98.   Respostas termorregulatórias de crianças no exercício em ambiente de calor Revista Paulista de Pediatria 31, no. 1 (March 2013): 104–10. doi:10.1590/s0103-05822013000100017. 
  99.   Children in Sauna: Electrocardiographic Abnormalities Acta Paediatrica 80, no. 3 (March 1991): 370–74. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1991.tb11864.x. 
  100.   Children in sauna: cardiovascular adjustment Pediatrics 86, no. 2 (August 1990): 282–88. 
  101.   Clinical Effects of Regular Dry Sauna Bathing: A Systematic Review Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 (2018): 1–30. doi:10.1155/2018/1857413. 
  102.   Fluid and electrolyte supplementation for exercise heat stress The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72, no. 2 (August 2000): 564S–572S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/72.2.564s. 
  103. “Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109, no. 3 (March 2009): 509–27. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.01.005.